History of Soap

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History of Soap



History of Soap

Messaggioda Aldebaran » 09/05/2010, 14:56

[b] Early [/ b]
The first evidence of the use of soap date back to Babylonian civilization. Terracotta cylinders containing residues of substances like soap dating back to 2800 BC have been found in Mesopotamia. In addition, archaeologists found a tablet with cuneiform dating from 2200 BC which described the preparation of soap with water, alkali and cassia oil.
The Ebers Papyrus, named after its European buyer, dating from the eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, namely the reign of Amenhotep I (1550 BC) contains information on the fact that ancient Egyptians bathed with soap-like animal and vegetable oils obtained by combining with alkali salts. Other ancient Egyptian papyri mention soapy substances used in the preparation of wool.

[b] Rome and its civilization [/ b]
One of the most common historical errors concerning the alleged discovery of a soap factory and scented soaps during the excavations of Pompeii. In fact the factory in question concerned the processing of minerals that have nothing to do with modern soaps. In fact, ancient Romans (as the ancient Greeks) did not use soap and used equipment recurve (the strigils) along with scented oils to scrape and remove dirt from the skin.
However, the soap was known (Latin sapo) and Pliny the cows, in his Historia naturalis cites the process by which the ash could be obtained from fats and detergents used to clean hair. Pliny, however, strongly disagrees with the use of soap and stigmatizes the abundant use that even they were men cocks and ducks.

Someone suggested that in fact the word soap is derived from Sapo hill where the ancient Romans sacrificed animals and burned bones. Ash and fat then flowed to the river Tiber, giving rise to saponification. The area was known from Roman laundresses who knew from experience that wash in that area of the Tiber possible to get a better wash. In reality this is probably a legend since the animal remains were never left in the areas of sacrifices (apart from the bones that were actually burned) but reused for food. Moreover, the amount of fat and ash that would have given rise to this phenomenon is incompatible with the accounts of sacrifice in ancient Rome. The same hill Sapo has never been located with certainty.

Most likely the word actually derives from the Latin flavor sebum or fat.

[b] The Arab world [/ b]
The Arabs produced regular basis soap with olive oil or thyme. They were the first to use caustic soda (Al-Soda Al-Kawia) and then, in practice, were the inventors of the modern soap.
Since the beginning of the 7th century, soap was produced in Nablus (Palestine), Kufa (Iraq) and Basra (Iraq).

Arab soap was colored and perfumed. Some soaps were liquid and others were solid, there were also special soap for shaving.

In 981 a soap was sold for 3 Dirhams. The manuscripts of Al-Razis contain recipes for soap recently in other manuscripts of the 13th century have been found more recipes for saponification.

Only in the 16th century the production of soap reached Spain before moving to France and Italy.

Many European cities boast of being the first to give rise to the production of soap in Europe: Marseille, Savona, Gallipoli, Genoa etc.. In addition to the populations of English language, the soap produced from olive oil or vegetable oil is still only from that of Castile soap, and then gives him an entirely Spanish origin.

[b] Modern History [/ b]
Until the industrial revolution, the soap was produced in small quantities, and handicraft. Around 1790 the medical and French chemist Nicolas Leblanc discovered a process for soda, an alkaline substance, common salt. Other chemicals could then produce caustic soda from salt solutions. These developments paved the way for industrialization of the production of soap.
The first industrial production of soap date back at this period in England and then spread throughout the world. In fact were the first industries to begin massive advertising campaigns (which incidentally are still going ...). Indeed, in 1894 appeared in New Zealand soap slogan that advertised on the back of stamps.

In practice, recently the use of soap has become universal (well almost, a number of people on the subway in Milan not in the know ...) thanks to the recognized benefits of personal hygiene in reducing illness. In the second half of the 19th century, was commonly purchased soaps and western countries tried to increase its use among the population by publicizing the relationship between personal hygiene and health.

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